The Masonic Mystery of 'Bonnie Prince Charlie.'

Dr. Marsha Keith Schuchard

 

New information on an enduring Masonic controversy involving Prince Charles Edward Stuart (1720-1788) of Scotland presented in a lecture by noted Masonic researcher Dr. Marsha Keith Schuchard.

Many years ago, when I was a young graduate student at the University of Texas, I became curious about the influence of Jewish mysticism, especially the Kabbalah, on various English and Irish literary figures--such as William Blake, W.B. Yeats, and James Joyce. At that time, long before the rock star Madonna made Kabbalah a trendy fashion, there was very little “respectable” academic work on Kabbalistic traditions and symbolism, except for the pioneering work of the great Israeli scholar, Gershom Scholem. I corresponded with Professor Scholem, and both of us kept coming up on Freemasonry as the major channel of transmission of Kabbalistic theosophy to many Western writers. However, the prevailing and official version of Masonic history ignored or glossed over this important Jewish influence. This was my first experience of the truism that “the victors write the history,” for I learned that my own religious and university education was a product of “Protestant-Whig historiography.”

I was raised as a Presbyterian in Texas and educated according to an anti-Catholic version of history, and I initially accepted the official history promulgated by the Grand Lodge of London--i.e., that Freemasonry began in England in 1717, when four lodges in London united to form the Grand Lodge of England. This supposedly authentic, “speculative” form of Masonry was dedicated to rational enlightenment, Newtonian science, Whig versus Tory governance, and the Protestant-Hanoverian succession to the British throne. However, this version of Freemasonry was not the one that influenced so many imaginative artists, visionary philosophers, and political dissidents. Instead, as I gradually learned, there was a much older, “Ancient” tradition that emanated from Scotland in the 1590s and included mystical and esoteric traditions rooted in Kabbalistic, Rosicrucian, and alchemical lore. [QUOTE #1]. Moreover, it was supported and encouraged by the Scottish-descended Stuart kings of the supposedly “united” kingdom of Great Britain.[QUOTE #2].

Because the Stuart kings--James VI and I, Charles I, Charles II, and James VII and II-- were relatively tolerant not only of Catholics but Jews, they were considered enemies to English Protestantism, especially in its Puritanical and Cromwellian forms. Even worse, they were Scottish and resented by many Englishmen as foreign interlopers. In 1688, when the last Stuart king, the Catholic convert James II, was driven out of England by the massed armed forces of the Dutch king, William of Orange, his victory was subsequently named the “Glorious Revolution” and painted as a victory for international Protestantism against Catholic tyranny and Papist slavery. That is the version of history that I was taught in the 1960s, and, for many years, I believed it.

However, as I continued to seek answers to the role of Kabbalistic Freemasonry in 17th- and 18th-century British literary history, I learned that the Glorious Revolution actually diminished the rights given to Catholics and Jews by the Stuart kings, and that the dominant party of Whigs steadily decreased the political and economic power of Scotland and Ireland, two unhappy parts of the “united” kingdom. A majority of Scots and Irish (and possibly even of English) believed that William III and his Hanoverian-German successors were illegitimate usurpers. As followers of James II and then his son, the exiled James III, they became known as Jacobites, and over the next eighty years, they carried on a domestic and international campaign to restore the Stuart claimants to the British throne. When the Scottish poet Robert Burns looked back on the loss of Scottish independence through its union with England, he blamed it on the greed of a few corrupt nobles, who were “bought and sold for English gold” by “a parcel of rogues in a nation.” As many Jacobites followed their kings into exile, they took their Stuart-ScottishMasonic traditions and networks with them into countries of refuge abroad. And here is where my story of the Masonic mystery of Bonnie Prince Charlie begins--and, surprisingly, it begins in the Protestant-Lutheran kingdom of Sweden.

In 1717, the year when the Grand Lodge of England was formed, the Hanoverian-Whig government had recently been seriously frightened by the exposure of a Swedish-Jacobite plot, in which the great warrior king, Charles XII of Sweden, secretly agreed to invade Scotland at the head of a Swedish-Jacobite army. Angered by the actions of the German Elector of Hanover, who became King George I of Britain in 1714, the Swedish king determined to reclaim Sweden’s territories on the North Sea that had been conquered and occupied by George’s armies and allies. According to some Masonic historians, fear about Jacobite-Masonic involvement in the Swedish plot led the Hanoverians to organize the Grand Lodge in order to render the fraternity loyal to the government. Over the next twelve years, Hanoverian Whigs and crypto-Jacobite Tories would struggle for control of the fraternity, even though officially there was to be no discussion of religion or politics in lodge meetings.

Despite Whig propaganda that branded all Jacobites as intolerant Papist puppets, the Swedish king believed in James III’s repeated promises to implement complete religious toleration upon his restoration. Thus, Charles XII declared a similar policy of “liberty of conscience” for all Swedish territories. Unfortunately, his death on the Norwegian battlefield in December 1718, when he was on the verge of invading Scotland, meant that his toleration policy was ignored and even disappeared from Swedish historical accounts. It is virtually unknown in Sweden today, but I discovered the document in an obscure church archive and will soon publish it..

After a bitter struggle for the Swedish succession, British bribery and military threats gained the throne for Prince Fredrick of Hesse, son-in-law of Charles XII, but supporters of the rival candidate, Duke Charles Frederick of Holstein, nephew and preferred choice of Charles XII, continued to campaign for his legitimate right to the succession. Over the next decades, the Holstein party played a role similar to the Jacobites as they supported “Pretenders” to their respective thrones. The word Pretender comes from the French “prétendant,” meaning claimant or candidate, and had no negative connotation in France and Sweden, though in England it came to imply a fraudulent pretense to the throne. Significantly, both Swedish parties--Hessians and Holsteiners-- were staunchly Protestant, as were the majority of Jacobites in the British Isles. But, the victors wrote the history, and even today, most history books equate the Jacobites with Catholic absolutism and tyranny. Thus, they conveniently ignore the decades-long support of Protestant Sweden for the Stuart claimants.

In December 1720, the Polish wife of the exiled James III gave birth to Prince Charles Edward Stuart, who was groomed from his youth to idolize and emulate the Swedish king, Charles XII. From his childhood tutor, the Scottish philosopher Andrew Michael Ramsay, he could have learned that in 1722 Ramsay and the Earl of Mar, both Jacobite Freemasons, had established, with the permission of James III, a secret military order of chivalry in Scotland, which initiated the chiefs of Jacobite clans into a fraternal network dedicated to a Stuart restoration. The Earl of Mar, before his exile, was a brilliant practising architect, who maintained close relations with Scottish operative Masons, and he continued to exploit his international Masonic contacts (especially with Sweden and Russia) to serve the Stuart cause. When Mar fell from favor, due to Scottish-English factionalism among the exiles, the quasi-Masonic order of chivalry went underground and was maintained only by Mar’s loyal supporters in Scotland. As we shall see, the survival of this clandestine military order of chivalry will provide a clue to our Masonic mystery.

In 1729, when Ramsay visited England, the Jacobite Masons had accomplished a coup by electing the 8th Duke of Norfolk, a crypto-Jacobite Catholic, to the Grand Mastership of the Grand Lodge of London. During Norfolk’s visit to France in 1730, the Jacobite Masons in Paris initiated three Swedish noblemen, members of the Holstein party, and this outreach was commemorated by Norfolk’s presentation of the famous sword of the seventeenth Swedish king, Gustavus Adolphus, to serve as the ceremonial sword at meetings of the Grand Lodge in London. (The sword is currently exhibited in the Grand Lodge Museum in London, but with no indication of its original political significance). Meanwhile, in Rome, the teenaged prince Charles Edward was trained in the military tactics of the late Charles XII, and he undertook a grueling physical regimen in order to achieve the legendary strength and stamina of the Swedish soldiers. He also became interested in the role that Freemasonry played in the Jacobite-Swedish collaboration.

In 1737 Charles Edward was informed about Ramsay’s famous oration in Paris, in which his former tutor recounted the influence of Jewish temple mysticism and crusader chivalry on the medieval development of Scottish and French Freemasonry. The prince expressed his longing to get a full copy of the oration and his desire to join the fraternity when he came of age. According to some Scottish oral traditions, he secretly joined the Jacobite lodge in Rome, which included Protestant and Catholic members of the Stuart court, despite his father’s objection and the Papal ban against the fraternity in 1738. The prince’s friend, Cardinal Lambertini, a strong supporter of the Stuarts, called the ban the Papacy’s worst political mistake, and rumors circulated that the Cardinal himself had earlier been initiated. Two years later, when Lambertini became the enlightened Pope Benedict XIV, he did not rigorously enforce the ban, which was not implemented in France, Ireland, or several other Catholic states. Thus, many Catholic churchmen and laymen continued to join the fraternity..

In 1737 Charles Edward met an especially interesting member of the Roman lodge, the young Swedish architect, Carl Johan Cronstedt, who was an expert on Charles XII’s military tactics for fast-moving campaigns. When Cronstedt returned to Paris, he reported on his experiences to his friend, the Swedish scientist and mystic Emanuel Swedenborg, who had been initiated in an operative lodge in London in 1710 and then served as a secret agent in the Swedish-Jacobite plot of 1714-17. Employed as a military engineer by Charles XII, Swedenborg was ordered by the king to examine the Swedish craft guilds, including the operative Masonic guilds, and to recommend reforms to improve their expertise and status, similar to developments in Scotland and Stuart England.. But Charles XII’s death and victory of the Hessian party aborted Swedenborg’s reform effort, and he and his political allies suffered persecution over the next years.

Twenty years later, the increasingly influential Holstein party became known as the “Hats,” versus the Hessian “Caps,” and they sent Swedenborg on a secret mission to France, where he participated in Jacobite Masonic affairs, during the Grand Mastership of the charismatic Earl of Derwentwater, a confidante of the Stuart princes. In 1738 Swedenborg was sent to Italy, where he evidently met James III and his two sons in a secret chamber in the Stuart palace. He spent much time with Senator Nils Bielke, a Swedish convert to Catholicism, who had been initiated by Derwentwater in Paris and who was close to James III and his sons. Through Bielke, who served as an intelligence for the French king, Louis XV, Swedenborg became involved in a French plot to gain Spanish funding for Swedish troops to join a Jacobite invasion of Britain. In 1739 Swedenborg made a previously unknown journey to Spain, and the funds were indeed sent to Swedish diplomats in Paris, but the plot did not materialize because of ministerial changes in Madrid. Meanwhile, the Hats gained control of the Swedish government, and Bielke noted happily that his brother-in-law Count Carl Gustaf Tessin, was not only the Hats’ political leader but also served as the Grand Master of Swedish Freemasonry. Tessin, who had sent Swedenborg to Spain, looked forward to the time when the energetic Stuart prince could replace his cautious father and take charge of the Jacobite movement.

Four years later, Swedenborg was living quietly in Holland, where he worked on his scientific treatises, while pursuing Kabbalistic studies and meditation experiments, which produced states of visionary trance and spirit-communication. In February 1744, his spiritual quest was interrupted by the announcement of the sudden arrival of Charles Edward Stuart in France, which was enthusiastically reported by Swedenborg’s diplomatic friends at The Hague. Swedenborg, who received a secret pension from the French king, was now reactivated as a Franco-Jacobite intelligence agent. With France and England currently at war on the Continent, Charles Edward worked with the Scottish Mason, George Keith, the former Earl Marischal of Scotland, to organize a full-fledged Franco-Swedish-Jacobite invasion of Britain. After Swedenborg received orders to move to London, he was initiated into the Jacobite high degrees in a mystical Masonic ceremony at The Hague. He recorded this in the coded language of a dream diary. [QUOTE #3]. However, at age 56, he was worried about his capacity to carry out his assigned mission to London, which he described as bringing in a Trojan horse in order to conquer the city.[QUOTE #4]. Over the next months, as violent storms and French political factionalism delayed the planned invasion, Swedenborg laid low in London and pursued his mystical studies.

Then, in July 1745, Charles Edward and his most aggressive Masonic supporters determined to go ahead with the invasion, despite the objections of Marischal Keith and Louis XV. As a trusted initiate of the Jacobite high degrees and a secret intelligence agent, Swedenborg evidently received word of the planned Masonic participation, which drew upon the Templar rituals and symbolism of the most loyal Jacobite lodges. Stimulated by his Kabbalistic meditation techniques, Swedenborg believed that that he now possessed second-sight or clairvoyance, and he recorded his prophetic visions of the return of the exiled Jacobites who will restore their prince. [QUOTE #5]. These predictions, written in an unpublished manuscript from May to July 1745, would soon be fulfilled, after Charles Edward and seven supporters abruptly sailed for Scotland in August. Swedenborg sensed that he was on increasingly “thin ice” in London, and he abruptly departed on a dangerous voyage to Sweden. He later recorded that he arrived in Stockholm on a significant date, August 30 [new style], when Charles Edward raised the Stuart standard at Glennfinnan and proclaimed his father’s right to the throne of his ancestors.

As the Jacobite troops marched victoriously through Scotland, they were joined by a contingent of Swedish soldiers from the Royal Suèdois regiment of the French army. These Swedish Jacobites believed that “Bonnie Prince Charlie” was re-enacting the heroic exploits of their beloved Charles XII. They may also have learned about a remarkable ceremony in Holyrood Palace in Edinburgh--a ceremony that would be enshrined in Swedish Masonic tradition. On 30 September 1745, the Duke of Perth wrote from Edinburgh to Lord Ogilvy: [QUOTE #6].

It is suggestive that one of the prince’s seven companions, George Kelly, had been employed by Ramsay to translate his French oration into English. Kelly was thus familiar with his version of Kabbalistic and Templar influences on the development of Scottish Freemasonry, and he was also privy to Ramsay’s collaboration with Mar in organizing the quasi-Masonic military order of chivalry in 1722. Another probably witness in Holyrood Palace was Magnus Wilhelm Armfelt, a Swedish soldier, whose son would help a later Swedish king revive the Templar ceremony performed in Holyrood Palace. After the terrible defeat of the Jacobite army at Culloden in 1746, many Scottish and Swedish soldiers fled to Gothenburg, where they were welcomed by their Masonic brothers, who helped them make their way to exile on the Continent. Among the refugees in Sweden was Lord Ogilvy, recipient of the letter describing Charles Edward’s initiation and elevation as Grand Master of the Order of the Temple. During the dangerous months when the prince hid out in the Highlands, the Swedes sent two ships to rescue him, but he eventually found his way to France by other means.

According to Whig historiography, the Jacobite cause was now dead, and most history books continue to paint Culloden as the death-blow to the movement. However, as we shall see, the struggle continued over the next forty years, and the Swedish Hats were among its staunchest supporters. The Hats’ hatred of the Hanoverian regime in Britain was reinforced in 1747, when they discovered a plot to make George II’s son, the Duke of Cumberland, successor to the Swedish throne. Reviled as “Butcher Cumberland,” because of his policy of brutal reprisal against the Scottish rebels, he was constantly compared, unfavorably, to “Bonnie Prince Charlie,” who called for merciful treatment of prisoners on both sides. The British agent of the plot was arrested and summarily executed in Stockholm..

Meanwhile in Paris, Charles Edward repeatedly expressed his anger about the inadequate suppport he received from France. Eventually his defiance and disresepect towards Louis XV so angered the king that he succumbed to British pressure and ordered the prince’s arrest and expulsion from French territory--acts which provoked widespread popular protest.. In February 1749 Charles Edward suddenly disappeared from Avignon and began the nine years of mysterious wandering that fed the legend of his role as the “Masked Knight” at Jacobite lodge meetings. His biographer Frank McLynn observes that Charles Edward was always at least one step ahead of those who sought him. His abilities at playing a Scarlet Pimpernel role were pronounced. The prince would have made a perfect secret agent... Techniques of disinformation, the art of disguise, the ability to cover his tracks, all these came as second nature to Charles Edward.... During the obscure years from 1749 to 1758 the combined espionage efforts of Europe could not get a proper fix on a man who was arguably the greatest celebrity of the time.

The British government sent spies and assassins all over Europe, but conflicting reports circulated about the prince’s whereabouts. Most diplomats and intelligencers believed that he had gone to Sweden. The French foreign minister d’Argenson argued that he would recover the money given by the Jacobites to Charles XII. [QUOTE #7]. He definitely acquired a passport to travel to Sweden, and a draft copy, written by the prince, survives in the unpublished Stuart Papers at Windsor Castle. [QUOTE #8]. Provocatively, on the passport, the prince is called “Soleil d’Or, Milete de Bretagne” (Golden Sun, Knight of Britain), which was the ritual title for the Grand Master of the Templars. In my forthcoming book, I argue that Senator Bielke and Swedenborg intended to accompany him on the journey. A Jacobite publication in 1750 claimed that he indeed visited Sweden, and a nineteenth-century account affirmed that he was welcomed with full royal honors by the Swedish Masons. However, documentary proof of such a visit is still lacking, though searches are beginning in the previously closed Swedish Masonic archives.

Throughout the 1750s and 60s, rumors about Charles Edwards’s Masonic activities circulated all over Europe. In France, the Grand Master Clermont maintained an elite, royalist Masonic rite--with Kabbalistic and Rose Cross degrees--in honor of the Stuart prince. In Britain he was still considered the hidden Grand Master of the secretive Royal Order of Heredom of Kilwinning. However, as he sunk deeper into alcoholism, the Hanoverians sent out a barrage of propaganda claiming that he was a spent force and moral degenerate. In 1774, Lambert de Lintot, the French Master of a Heredom lodge in London, announced the removal of Charles Edward from his position as Grand Master. He and seventy lodge members vowed to “give no recognition to any Constitution in the name of the said Charles Edward, in the three kingdoms of Great Britain.” But in Sweden the Hats maintained their faith in the Young Pretender, who after his father’s death, called himself Charles III. The ambitious Swedish king, Gustav III, believed that Charles Edward’s recent marriage and determination to overcome his alcoholism boded well for new Swedish-Jacobite initiatives.

Gustav III and his two brothers, Duke Carl of Soudermania and Duke Adolph Frederick of Ostrogothia, were Jacobite Masons, and the royalist Swedish Rite was closely affiliated with the Clermont Rite. In 1774 the king appointed Duke Carl as Grand Master, and he immediately established Stuart lodges which granted elite degrees of “Stuart Brothers.” In 1776 Duke Adolph Frederick, chief of the Swedish military lodges, travelled to Italy, where Charles Edward gave him a patent to serve as his representative in “all the lodges in the North.” The royal brothers then undertook a secret Masonic correspondence with the prince, in which they expressed their full belief in his role as Grand Master of the Order of the Temple. These letters survive today in the unpublished Stuart Papers at Windsor Castle and in the Masonic archives in Stockholm.

In 1781 Gustav proclaimed full religious toleration in Sweden, admitting Catholics and Jews. In so doing, he fulfilled the promises made by Charles XII and the Stuart Pretenders. He also made Freemasonry an instrument of state, and he extended the Swedish Rite into enemy territories, such as Russia and Prussia, where it operated as a political and esoteric “fifth column.” He believed that the legendary loyalty of the Scottish Highlanders during and after the Jacobite rebellion of 1745 was inspired by their Masonic bonds and mystical royalism. His brother, DukeCarl, believed further that Kabbalistic and Swedenborgian rituals would contribute to Sweden’s military potency, and in 1783 he began the construction of a secret Masonic Sanctuary, modelled on Solomon’s Temple, in the royal palace. He began to wear a Grand Master’s robe elaborately embroidered with Kabbalistic symbols, such as the Sephirotic Tree and the Seal of Solomon.

In 1783, as German rivals in the Strict Observance system claimed Masonic superiority over the Swedish Rite, Gustav III determined to meet with the Young Pretender in order to learn the truth about his role in the Order of the Temple. Thus, in November, he travelled to Italy, accompanied by Gustav Mauritz Armfelt, son of the Swedish soldier who marched with the prince from Prestonpans to Culloden. During long emotional sessions with the elderly Pretender, Gustav wept at his accounts of the heroism of the Highlanders and the slaughter at Culloden. The two Masons then discussed the necessity of restoring the Temple of Jerusalem, if only in spiritual and ritualistic terms, and Gustav promised to solicit funds from his Masonic allies to support the ailing prince. In return, Charles Edward named the Swedish king his successor as Grand Master of the Templars, in the event of his death. Despite the secrecy of their meetings, the British ambassador Horace Mann had a spy in Gustav’s entourage who reported the whole affair to him. In the 1730s Mann had been a member of the Hanoverian lodge in Florence, but he was ignorant about developments in Jacobite Freemasonry during the 1750s and 60s, and he was baffled by the Swedish king’s belief in their traditions.[QUOTE #9].

In 1788, when the Stuart Pretender died, a messenger was sent from Italy to Sweden with the patent naming Gustav III the Grand Master of the Order of the Temple. As the Swedish king prepared to declare war on Russia, he hoped that the legendary loyalty and courage of the Jacobite Masons during the great rebellion of 1745 would be transferred to his Swedish troops. But Russian military might prevailed, and chivalry was indeed dead. As we now know, the victors did indeed write the history--which eliminated this romantic tale of Masonic mystery and mysticism from their official narrative. Nevertheless, with the gradual opening up of Masonic archives in Sweden, Russia, and Eastern Europe, the full story of Bonnie Prince Charlie, the Jacobite Masons, and their Swedish supporters is beginning to emerge from the historical shadows.

Quotes

Quote 1

For we be brethren of the Rosie Cross, We have the Mason word, and second sight, Things for to come we can foretell aright. And shall we show what misterie we mean, In fair acrosticks Carolus Rex is seen. --Henry Adamson, The Muses Threnodie (Edinburgh, 1638).

Quote 2

The Branch of the Lodge of Solomon’s Temple...is as I can easily prove the Antientist and Purest now on Earth. The famous old Scottish Lodge of Kilwinning of which all the Kings of Scotland have been from Time to Time Grand Masters without Interruption down from the days of Fergus...[who] was carefully instructed in all the Arts and Sciences, especially in the natural Magick, and the Cabalistical Philosophy... Speaking of the Cabala, as Masonry was call’d in those Days... --Jonathan Swift, Letter from the Grand Mistress of the Female Freemasons (Dublin, 1724).

Quote 3

I was first brought into association with others... I was bandaged [blindfolded] and wrapped... I was inaugurated in a wonderful manner. And then it was said, “Can any Jacobite be more than honest?” So at last I was received with an embrace... it was a mystical series. --Emanuel Swedenborg, Journal of Dreams (The Hague, 5 April 1744).

Quote 4

It seemed to me that we worked long and hard to bring in a chest, in which were lain precious things which had long lain there; just as it was a long work with Troy; at last one went in underneath and eased it onwards; it was thus gotten as conquered; and we sawed and sawed... --Emanuel Swedenborg, Journal of Dreams (Amsterdam,18 April 1744).

Quote 5

Hear, O Isles, and ye people from afar off; Jova hath called me...a servant, to bring again to him the Jacobites, and to gather to him the Israelites... I will use thee for making a covenant with men, that thou mayest occupy possessions that lie waste; that thou mayest command the prisoners to come out...

That he hath redeemed the Jacobite, and will deliver him from prison; for thou wast precious unto me. I will gather thee from the west and the east. I will command the north, that it give up; and the south, that it refuse not to bring my sons from afar...

Upon an exceeding high mountain...was the building of a city. There he saw a man having in his hand a measuring line. A wall surrounded the temple without, and he measured all the things... The splendour of Jova came into the temple by way of the gate looking to the east--he showed the place of the throne... The prince he shall settle in the sanctuary.--The northern gate. --Emanuel Swedenborg, “The Messiah about to Come” MS. (London, May-July 1745). .

Quote 6

It is truly a proud thing to see our Prince again in the Palace of his Fathers, with all the best blood of Scotland around him he is much beloved of all souls, and we cannot fail to make the pestilent England smoke for it... On Tuesday last there was a solemn chapter of the ancient order of chivalry of the Temple of Jerusalem, held in the audience room. Not more than ten Knights were present, for since my Lord of Mar demitted the office of G Master, no general meeting has been called, save in your own North Convent, our Noble Prince looked most gallantly in the white robe of the order, took his profession like a worthy Knight, and after receiving the congratulations of all present, did vow that he would restore the Temple higher than it was in the days of William the Lyon. Then my Lord Athol did demit as Regent, and his Rl Highness was elected G Master, I write you knowing how you love the order. --Duke of Perth to Lord Ogilvy (Edinburgh, 30 September 1745).

Quote 7

We have news that Prince Edward has safely reached Switzerland; but some people think that from there he will go to Sweden. He has a large sum of money in Sweden, more than 15,000 florins, which his father ceded to him. They come from a purpose Charles XII had, shortly before his death, of succouring the Pretender; he obtained that sum from the Jacobite party for the purpose of sending 10,000 men into England... Prince Edward will recover his debt on making himself known. --Marquis d’Argenson (Journal, 20 March 1749).

Quote 8

Commission au Soleil d’Or Milete de Bretagne en sa maison dans le faubourg de Liege... Mr. le Comte de Bielk Suedois et une de meme pour servire a la meme persone Mr le Baron de Douglas pour passe et repasse...au royaume...pour six mois.. --Draft passport for Prince Charles Edward [Douglas], Count Bielke, and another Swede to travel to Sweden (Stuart Papers, ca. 1749-50).

Quote 9

His Swedish Majesty has...taken other steps, which though they may appear ludicrous, are not less certain. It is supposed that when the Order of the Templars was suppressed and the Individuals were persecuted, some of them secreted themselves in the High Lands of Scotland and that from them, either arose, or that they united themselves to the Society of Free Masons, of which the Kings of Scotland were supposed to be hereditary Grand Masters. From this Principle the present Pretender has let himself be persuaded that the Grand Mastership devolved to him, in which quality in the year 1776, He granted a Patent to the Duke of Ostrogothica (who was then here) by which he appointed him his Vicar in all the Lodges in the North, which that Prince some time after resigned as many of the Lodges in those parts for want of authentick proofs, refused to acknowledge the pretended Hereditary Succession to that Denomination. Nevertheless the King of Sweden during his stay here obtained a Patent from the Pretender in due form by which He has appointed His Swedish Majesty his Coadjutor and Successor to the Grand Mastership of all the Lodges in the North, on obtaining which...the King expressed his greatest joy. --Ambassador Horace Mann to John Udny (Florence, 30 December 1783).

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